Know-your-own-league context: insights for player preparation and recruitment – Part 1: Team formations


  1. Thanks for the interesting article.

    I had some questions about it:

    1. What is the y-axis in Figs 1, 2, 3. The caption says “proportion”, but it can be clarified, right?
    2. Is the Transfermarkt dataset provided by the company or collected via scraping?
    3. Is the dataset also available as part of the paper?

    • Hi Hadi,

      1) Proportion is the percentage a formation is used.
      For Fig 1, there is a green dot around 36 in 2007/08 : it means that 4-4-2 was used 36% of the time in 2007/08. If you sum all dots related to a given season, it’s equal to 100%.
      For Figs 2 to 5, it’s the percentage a formation is used within the given league e.g. in 2008/09, 4-3-3 was used ~60% of the time in Eredivisie. Here, the sum of the dots related to a given season is not equal to 100% as it’s from a league perspective.
      We could have clarified that more.

      2) This was collected via scraping.

      3) Dataset is not available as part of the paper.

      Thanks for your feedback,

      • Hi Max,

        Thanks for the answer. Probably, the clarification can be applied in case the manuscript is going to be submitted to a journal.

        On transfermarkt, I saw that one can also get the “preferred formation” of coaches (see

        Taking into account that information can also be relevant for this study, too.

        P.S. I did not receive a notification that you replied. Probably, there is an issue with this platform!

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